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The latter we have seen operated with irregular, empirical Ulūlu and Addāru intercalations down to 527, then passed over to the octaëteris and finally, when in the 19th year of Darius the beginning of the year coincided with spring equinox, to the 19-year cycle” (1985, p. While local Persian speakers borrowed the Arabic names of the twelve months, non-Persian speakers such as the Pashtun and Hazāra created partly original termi­nologies (Table 40). This calendar is old, probably pre-Islamic, according to Bīrūnī (.

C., seems to indicate the existence of a somewhat later solar calendar, though opinions differ on this point (Bickerman, 1967, p. Hartner’s interpretation differs: “The Old Persian and the Babylonian calendars will then have had different systems of intercalation. der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, Geistes- und sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wiesbaden, 1953, no. Alex­ander probably used the Macedonian calendar, but the Achaemenid system seems not to have been abolished. C.) the Babylonian calendar was adopted, but the original names of the months were replaced by the Macedonian names, in which Nīsannu corresponded to Artemisios and so on (cf. The lunar calendar in use in Afghanistan before 1301 Š./1922 was the common Arabic one (Table 40). 1635 of the mutual differences in their calendars but showed no interest in resolving them until in 1720 a man from Kermān named Jāmāsb Welāyatī arrived in Surat and noted that the calendar of the Parsi community was a month behind that of Iran (Darmesteter, p. This provoked the formation of a new group, the s have preserved their own respective calendars. Today, however, the three sects do not differ in other important ways, and the hostility and polemics of the last century are only a memory. The Syro-­Macedonian calendar (Table 41), which has been adopted by the eastern Christian communities in Iran, is regulated according to the Julian calendar but with Arabic (derived from Phoenician) names for the months.

This lunar calendar, with the addition of the epact in each year, became the Sasanian “civil” calendar. In the solar Hejrī calendar the year begins on ; the first six months have thirty-one days each, the next five thirty days each, and the last one twenty-nine days in ordinary years and thirty in leap years. The timing of ordinary and leap years in this calendar follows the Jalālī rule of intercalation over a 128-year cycle.

59-139) attempted to establish the central position of Miθra (the fourteenth of twenty-seven days was named Mihr). The months of the solar Hejrī and Šāhanšāhī calendars are named for the ancient Iranian months, first attested in the Arsacid period (see i above; cf. Although the sequence and number of months are identical in all Iranian calendars, the lengths of the months were changed by the reform of 1304 Š./1925.

In addition to information on the standard Zoroas­trian calendar and its variants, Bīrūnī (, p. Every six years an intercalary month was inserted and every 120 years two months, in the first instance to recover five days for each year (the uncomputed epago­menal days), in the second to recover the remaining quarter-days. Although early historians do not mention whether or not ʿOmar decided to adopt a version of the Iranian calendar for tax purposes, Moḥammad b. On the other hand, those given by Waṣṣāf (663-735/1265-1334; Abdollahy, loc. 105-25/724-43); Bīrūnī reports that landlords petitioned one of his officials to restore the intercalary month and thus to postpone the beginning of tax collection (, p. Although taxpayers’ complaints persisted through the early ʿAbbasid period, it was not until the reign of al-Moʿtażed (279-89/892-902) that an intercalation of two months was introduced into the Zoroastrian year (Bīrūnī, , ed. The fraction 39/161 is a crude approximation of the excess of a solar year over 365 days: 39/161 ~ 0; 14, 33, instead of Ptolemy’s 0; 14, 48.

It is doubtful, however, that such a calendar ever existed (Hartner, 1985, p. Abī ʿAbd-Allāh Sanjar Kamālī, author of calendar was in use in early Islam and that it was based on a calendar originally introduced by the Sasanians (see i above; see also Abdollahy, 1988, pp. 164-66), this date was not related to the Hejrī era. cit.) indicate that he followed a system in which the months coincided with the months of the Jalālī calendar (see below; cf. (For the more accurate 128-year cycle see discussion of the solar Hejrī calendar below). 749-56) maintains that they were fixed on the basis of observations at Persepolis of the acronical risings and cosmical settings (observable at sunset and sunrise respectively) of different stars in the late 6th century B. The intervals between the were sixty days from the first to the second, seventy-five from the second to the third, thirty from the third to the fourth, eighty from the fourth to the fifth, seventy-five from the fifth to the sixth, and forty-five from the sixth to the first (, pp. The only references to it are several dates in the early Mongol period mentioned by Rašīd-al-Dīn (p. Furthermore, during the period of seven centuries in which this calendar was in use, from the Mongol invasion until 1304 Š./1925, certain ad­ditional modifications were made. Tables 33, 42.) The point from which the years are reckoned is the same as for the Hejrī era (Thursday, 15 July 622). 611, the twenty-first year of the reign of Ḵosrow II (591-628); despite arguments to the contrary put forward by S. There can be no doubt, however, that the original Chinese-Uighur form of this calendar was never used by Iranians, either during the Mongol period or later. The form of this cal­endar used by Iranians combined features of the Chinese-Uighur original with those of the lunar Hejrī and Jalālī calendars. 262-64), where there is a description of a lunar year used by Zoroastrians (cf. The result represents the number of days between the beginning of the Christian era and the date in question.

The Zoroastrian calendar consisted of twelve months of thirty days each (cf. 175-81, 223-59; Table 22, Table 23), Avestan sources give the names of all thirty days but of only seven of the twelve months (cf. The fraction 31/128 means that each year contains 6, 5; 14, 32 days, close to the previous 6, 5; 14, 33 days. The method of converting dates traditionally given in astronomical handbooks is to reckon the number of days between the date in question and the beginning of the calendar in which it appears and then to translate this figure into the comparable interval in the second calendar (Abdollahy, 1987, pp. For example, to convert a lunar Hejrī date to the corresponding date in the Julian calendar (in use before the Gregorian reform on 16 Ramażān 990 = 22 Mehr 961 Š./4 October 1582), the elapsed complete lunar Hejrī years are multiplied by 354 11/30 (the average number of days in a lunar year) and the elapsed days of the date year (see Table 38) are added; the resulting total of elapsed days is added to the number of days between the beginnings of the two calendars.

Šāpūr (399-420) two extra months were inserted, one to correct the cumulative lag, the other to forestall future errors. 759-72) Hartner, noted that the shorter, 116-year cycle of intercalations would accord well (at the beginning dates) with the sidereal year (365.25636 days; multiplying Bīrūnī’s figures yields 365.2586 days), and, from comparisons with later dates and with the Egyptian (Sōthic) calendar, arrived at the date 503 for the introduction of the Zoroastrian calendar. 694-703/1295-1304), but it did not remain in use for long; contemporary historians do not agree on the corresponding lunar Hejrī date (see Abdollahy, 1977, pp. Consequently, two features of the lunar Hejrī calendar were incorporated into it: the starting point, which was directly connected with the Prophet of Islam, and the lunar months, which, according to Koranic teaching, could not be changed.

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